In the UK, transient models of heat, air and moisture transport (HAMT) are common tools used by building practitioners to better understand moisture movement within building elements and construction systems. Enforced by BS 5250:2011, hygrothermal simulations are also used for condensation risk analysis and to estimate the likelihood of mould growth and fabric decay. This paper describes the methodology applied in the validation of a hygrothermal-modelling tool used in the evaluation of internal wall insulation. Wall assemblies typically constructed for internal insulation were exposed to transient boundary conditions derived from vapour pressure profiles and their response to step changes and fluctuations were analysed. The wall assemblies were constructed using one wall substrate (aerated clay blocks and gypsum plaster) and eight commonly used internal insulation systems. Relative humidity and temperature levels measured at the interface between the wall substrate and each insulation system were used to assess the hygrothermal performance of each insulation system. As a result, the wall assemblies were clustered in three subgroups; dense capillary-active insulation, lightweight vapour-permeable insulation and synthetic vapour-closed insulation, and the hygrothermal performance of the proposed clusters compared with the results provided by the simulation tool. It was found that simulated assemblies have similar hygrothermal performance as those monitored.