Publications

2017

Life cycle energy efficiency in building structures: A review of current developments and future outlooks based on BIM capabilities

The continuous developments of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry supported by the advancements in material resourcing and construction processes could offer engineers the essential decision-making procedures to leverage the raising demands for sustainable structural designs. This article brings together the theory of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and the capabilities of BIM to survey the current developments in the energy efficiency of structural systems.

Authors: Eleftheriadis S, Mumovic D, Greening P.

Publication: Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2017; 67: 811-825 | full text (PDF)

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Mass Participation During Emergency Response: Event-centric Crowdsourcing in Humanitarian Mapping

Crowdsourcing platforms have become important information providers after disaster events. While they can build on some prior experiences, it is not yet well understood how contributor capacity for such activities is constituted. To what extent are initiatives building a dormant task force that springs to action when it is needed? Alternatively, do they mainly rely on the recruitment of new contributors during disaster events, possibly at the expense of contribution quality? We seek to develop a better understanding of these relationships, using the example of the Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team.

Authors: Dittus M, Quattrone G, Capra L.

Publication: Proceedings 20th ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing, Portland, OR. 28 Feb 2017 | full text (PDF)

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Work Always in Progress: Analysing Maintenance Practices in Spatial Crowd-sourced Datasets

Crowd-mapping is a form of collaborative work that empowers users to share geographic knowledge. Despite geographic information being intrinsically evolving, little research has so far gone into analysing maintenance practices in these domains. In this paper, we quantitatively capture maintenance dynamics in geographic crowd-sourced datasets, in terms of: the extent to which different maintenance actions are taking place, the type of spatial information that is being maintained, who engages in these practices and where.

Authors: Quattrone G, Dittus M, Capra L.

Publication: Proceedings 20th ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing, Portland, OR. 28 Feb 2017 | full text (PDF)

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2016

A review of the regulatory energy performance gap and its underlying causes in non-domestic buildings

This paper reviews the discrepancy between predicted and measured energy use in non-domestic buildings in a UK context with outlook to global studies. It explains differences between energy performance quantification and classifies this energy performance gap as a difference between compliance and performance modeling with measured energy use.

Authors: van Dronkelaar, C., Dowson, M., Burman, E., Spataru, C., & Mumovic, D.

Publication: Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering, 1:17. | full text (PDF)

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Ambient fields: representing potential sensory information

It is increasingly apparent that the traditional scene graph is not fulfilling the requirements of real-time interactive systems. The use of a single graph as a representation of the current state of the world means that display systems, that may operate at very different rates, or may need to predict ahead the state, need to be very tightly integrated with behaviour and semantics. In this position paper, we will propose a type of field called the "ambient field" which represents information proximate to the user's senses, which they could sample over short time periods.

Authors: Steed, A., Pawar, V., Friston, S., & Srinivasan, M. A.

Publication: Proceedings IEEE 9th Workshop on Software Engineering and Architectures for Realtime Interactive Systems (SEARIS), 20 March 2016 | full text (PDF)

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An 'In the Wild' Experiment on Presence and Embodiment using Consumer Virtual Reality Equipment

Consumer virtual reality systems are now becoming widely available. We report on a study on presence and embodiment within virtual reality that was conducted `in the wild', in that data was collected from devices owned by consumers in uncontrolled settings, not in a traditional laboratory setting.

Authors: Steed, A; Friston, S; Lopez, M; Drummond, J; Pan, Y; Swapp, D

Publication: Proceedings IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 22(4):1406-1414 | full text (PDF)

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Analysing Volunteer Engagement in Humanitarian Mapping: Building Contributor Communities at Large Scale US

Organisers of large-scale crowdsourcing initiatives need to consider how to produce outcomes with their projects, but also how to build volunteer capacity. The initial project experience of contributors plays an important role in this, particularly when the contribution process requires some degree of expertise. We propose three analytical dimensions to assess first-time contributor engagement based on readily available public data: cohort analysis, task analysis, and observation of contributor performance. We apply these to a large-scale study of remote mapping activities coordinated by the Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team, a global volunteer effort with thousands of contributors.

Authors: Dittus MS, Capra L, Quattrone G.

Publication: Proceedings 19th ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing. ACM. 108-118. 22 Feb 2016 | full text (PDF)

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Construction and Evaluation of an Ultra Low Latency Frameless Renderer for VR

In this study, we present an ultra-low latency real-time ray-casting renderer for virtual reality, implemented on an FPGA. Our renderer has a latency of ∼1 ms from ‘tracker to pixel’. Its frameless nature means that the region of the display with the lowest latency immediately follows the scan-beam. This is in contrast to frame-based systems such as those using typical GPUs, for which the latency increases as scan-out proceeds.

Authors: Friston, S., Steed, A., Tilbury, S., & Gaydadjiev, G.

Publication: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 22(4), 1377–1386 | full text (PDF) 

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Delivering Building Performance

There is an increasingly large body of evidence that shows that there is a 'gap' between the expected, designed or desired performance of the building and how that building performs once delivered, occupied and maintained over time. All too often predictions of the whole building performance are either not accurately made or communicated.

Authors: Chris van Dronkelaar (VEIV) was a Project researcher within task group at the UKGBC in partnership with BuroHappold Engineering and UCL

Publication: UK Green Building Council | full text (PDF)

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Digitally Reconstructing The Great Parchment Book: 3D recovery of fire-damaged historical documents

The Great Parchment Book of The Honourable The Irish Society is a major surviving historical record of the estates of the county of Londonderry (in modern day Northern Ireland). It contains key data about landholding and population in the Irish province of Ulster and the city of Londonderry and its environs in the mid-17th Century, at a time of social, religious, and political upheaval. Compiled in 1639, it was severely damaged in a fire in 1786, and due to the fragile state of the parchment its contents have been mostly inaccessible since.

Authors: Kazim Pal, Tim Weyrich, et al.

Publication: Literary and Linguistic Computing: the journal of digital scholarship in the humanities, December 2016 | full details

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Exploring Maintenance Practices in Crowd-Mapping

Crowd-mapping is a form of collaborative work that empowers users to gather and share geographic knowledge. OpenStreetMap is one of the most successful examples of such paradigm, where the goal of building a global map of the world is collectively performed by over 2M contributors. Despite geographic information being intrinsically evolving, little research has so far gone into analysing maintenance practices in these domains. In this paper, we perform a preliminary exploration to quantitatively capture maintenance dynamics in geographic crowd-sourced datasets, in terms of: the extent to which different maintenance actions are taking place, the
type of spatial information that is being maintained, and who engages in these practices.

Authors: Quattrone G, Dittus M, Capra L.

Publication: Proceedings 27th ACM Conference on Hypertext and Social Media. 01 Jun 2016 | full text (PDF)

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glTF streaming from 3D repo to X3DOM

Time-of-Flight cameras provide high-frame-rate depth measurements within a limited range of distance. These readings can be extremely noisy and display errors not present with other scanning technologies, for instance, where scenes contain depth discontinuities or materials with low infrared reflectivity. Previous works have treated the amplitude of each Time-of-Flight sample as a measure of confidence. In this paper, we demonstrate the shortcomings of this common lone heuristic, and propose an improved per-pixel confidence measure using a Random Forest regressor trained with real-world data.

Authors: Scully, T., Friston, S., Fan, C., Doboš, J., & Steed, A.

Publication: Proceedings 21st International Conference on Web3D Technology - Web3D '16 (pp. 7-15), 21 July 2016 | full text (PDF)

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Large-scale Volunteer Engagement in Humanitarian Mapping US

 

Organisers of large crowdsourcing initiatives need to consider how to produce outcomes with their projects, but also how to build volunteer capacity. The initial contributor experience plays an important role in this, particularly when contributions require some expertise: not all contributors who start to learn the practice are likely to be retained.

Authors: Dittus MS.

Publication: Proceedings 19th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing Companion. ACM. 139-142. 27 Feb 2016 | full text (PDF)

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Multi-performance optimisation framework for the selection of structural alternatives based on sustainable qualities

In recent years, the increasing demand for innovative sustainable policies in building engineering has shifted the decision rationale from traditional performance-based systems towards systems augmented by life-cycle sustainability notions. This paper investigates a novel optimisation framework, which supports the selection of buildings’ structural alternatives at concept stage by applying multiple performance, sustainable requirements. The established model explores ways to effectively compute and process expert knowledge across different stakeholders groups into a consolidated decision-making platform supported by Lean Theory.

Authors: Eleftheriadis S, Mumovic D, Duffour P, and Greening P.

Publication: Proceedings of the SEMC. Cape Town, South Africa; 2016 

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Multiperformance optimisation framework for the selection of structural alternatives based on sustainable qualities

In recent years, the increasing demand for innovative sustainable policies in building engineering has shifted the decision rationale from traditional performance-based systems towards systems augmented by life-cycle sustainability notions. This paper investigates a novel optimisation framework, which supports the selection of buildings’ structural alternatives at concept stage by applying multiple performance, sustainable requirements.

Authors: S Eleftheriadis, D Mumovic, P Duffour, PD Greening

Publication: Proceedings of 6th International Conference on structural engineering, mechanics and computation (Cape Town, South Africa) September 2016 | full text (PDF)

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Semantically enriched BIM Life Cycle Assessment to enhance Buildings' Environmental Performance

The reduction of carbon emissions has become a priority for the building industry, in particular due to recent sustainability-driven building regulations and policies. Recent studies have examined how new computational technologies that utilise Building Information Modelling (BIM) can address a range of sustainability-related issues. Amongst those, the assessment of building environmental impact has been highlighted as being of particular importance as it can offer valuable guidance to design teams and policy makers.

Authors: Schwartz Y, Eleftheriadis S, Raslan R, and Mumovic D.

Publication: Proceedings of the CIBSE Technical Symposium. Edinburgh, UK; 2016 | full text (PDF)

Year: 2011

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Social Contribution Settings and Newcomer Retention in Humanitarian Crowd Mapping

Organisers of crowd mapping initiatives seek to identify practices that foster an active contributor community. Theory suggests that social contribution settings can provide important support functions for newcomers, yet to date there are no empirical studies of such an effect. We present the first study that evaluates the relationship between colocated practice and newcomer retention in a crowd mapping community, involving hundreds of first-time participants.

Authors: Dittus M, Quattrone G, Capra L.

Publication: Proceedings 8th International Conference on Social Informatics, Bellevue, WA. 30 Nov 2016 | full text (PDF)

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Using crowdsourced imagery to detect cultural ecosystem services: a case study in South Wales, UK

Within ecological research and environmental management, there is currently a focus on demonstrating the links between human well-being and wildlife conservation. Within this framework, there is a clear interest in better understanding how and why people value certain places over others. We introduce a new method that measures cultural preferences by exploring the potential of multiple online georeferenced digital photograph collections.

Authors: Gliozzo, G., Pettorelli, N., & Haklay, M.

Publication:Ecology and Society, 21(3), art6 | full text

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2015

An Image Degradation Model for Depth-augmented Image Editing

Images remain the most popular medium to capture our surroundings. Although significant advances have been made in developing image editing tools, the key challenge is to intelligently account for missing depth information. The growing popularity of depth images offers a new avenue to revisit image editing tasks. In this work, we investigate how even coarse depth information can be exploited to address some of the fundamental challenges in image editing namely producing correct perspective, handling occlusion, and obtaining segmentation.

Authors: Hennessey, J. W. & Mitra, N. J.

Publication: Comput. Graph. Forum 34 (5), 191-199 | presentation (PDF)

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Augmented BIM based taxonomy for steel design systems: An integrated evolutionary computational approach

Within the building industry, approximately 45% of the total material usage arises from the consumption of steel and concrete in construction. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the flow of interactions between materials, processes and activities within buildings’ lifecycle in order to meet national and global environmental emissions’ targets (IbnMohammed et al, 2013). The present research investigates the potential to reduce the environmental impacts of structural systems though a more efficient use of materials.

Authors: Eleftheriadis S, Mumovic D and Greening P.

Publication: Proceedings of the 17th Young Researchers' Conference, The Institution of Structural Engineers, London, UK; 2015 | full text (PDF)

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BIM Enabled Optimisation Framework for Environmentally Responsible and Structurally Efficient Design Systems

A parametric optimisation framework has been explored and established to perform and analyse both a structure’s efficiency and its environmental performance as part of a holistic BIM approach. Normally, this methodology is achieved through coupling various simulation tools. However, in the current study it is integrated into a single platform, in which all design variables can be manually controlled. 

Authors: Eleftheriadis S, Mumovic D, Greening P, and Chronis A.

Publication: Proceedings of the ISARC. Oulu, Finland; 2015 | full text (PDF)

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The Effects of Low Latency on Pointing and Steering Tasks

Latency is detrimental to interactive systems, especially pseudo-physical systems that emulate real-world behaviour. It prevents users from making quick corrections to their movement, and causes their experience to deviate from their expectations. Latency is a result of the processing and transport delays inherent in current computer systems.

Authors: Malcolm Reynolds, Jozef Dobos, Leto Peelz, Tim Weyrich, Gabriel Brostow

Publication: Transactions on Visualisation and Computer Graphics, 22(5):1605-1615 | full text (PDF)

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Ultra Low Latency Dataflow Renderer

Time-of-Flight cameras provide high-frame-rate depth measurements within a limited range of distance. These readings can be extremely noisy and display errors not present with other scanning technologies, for instance, where scenes contain depth discontinuities or materials with low infrared reflectivity. Previous works have treated the amplitude of each Time-of-Flight sample as a measure of confidence. In this paper, we demonstrate the shortcomings of this common lone heuristic, and propose an improved per-pixel confidence measure using a Random Forest regressor trained with real-world data.

Authors: Friston, S., Steed A., Tilbury S., Gaydadjiev G.

Publication: Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Field Programmable Logic and Applications - FPL 2015. 128-131. 24 Aug 2015 | poster 

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2014

Content-Aware Surface Parameterization for Interactive Restoration of Historical Documents

We present an interactive method to restore severely damaged historical parchments. When damaged by heat in a fire, such manuscripts undergo a complex deformation and contain various geometric distortions such as wrinkling, buckling, and shrinking, rendering them nearly illegible. They cannot be physically flattened due to the risk of further damage. 

Authors: Kazim Pal, Christian Schüller, Daniele Panozzo, Olga Sorkine-Hornung, Tim Weyrich

Publication: Computer Graphics Forum (Proc. Eurographics), 33(2), 9 pages, 2014 | full text (PDF)

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Measuring Latency in Virtual Environments

Latency of interactive computer systems is a product of the processing, transport and synchronisation delays inherent to the components that create them. In a virtual environment (VE) system, latency is known to be detrimental to a user's sense of immersion, physical performance and comfort level. Accurately measuring the latency of a VE system for study or optimisation, is not straightforward. A number of authors have developed techniques for characterising latency, which have become progressively more accessible and easier to use. In this paper, we characterise these techniques. We describe a simple mechanical simulator designed to simulate a VE with various amounts of latency that can be finely controlled (to within 3ms). We develop a new latency measurement technique called Automated Frame Counting to assist in assessing latency using high speed video (to within 1ms).

Authors: Friston, S., & Steed, A.

Publication: Proceedings IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (Proceedings Virtual Reality 2014), 20(4) | full text (PDF)

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2013

3D Reconstruction For Damaged Documents: Imaging of The Great Parchment Book

Digitization of historical documents is extremely useful as it allows easy access to the documents from remote locations and removes the need for potentially harmful physical handling. Traditional imaging methods are unsuitable for documents with complex geometry as they will produce images containing perspective distortions, and 3D imaging methods previously proposed for document scanning will often suffer from occlusions and/or require manual alignment of individual range scans.

Authors: Kazim Pal, Melissa Terras, Tim Weyrich

Publication: In Proc. of 2nd Intl. Workshop on Historical Document Imaging and Processing, pp. 14–21, Washington DC, 24 August, 2013 | full text (PDF)

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Interactive Exploration and Flattening of Deformed Historical Documents

We present an interactive application for browsing severely damaged documents and other cultural artefacts. Such documents often contain strong geometric distortions such as wrinkling, buckling, and shrinking and cannot be flattened physically due to the high risk of causing further damage. Previous methods for virtual restoration involve globally flattening a 3D reconstruction of the document to produce a static image.

Authors: Kazim Pal, Melissa Terras, Tim Weyrich

Publication: Computer Graphics Forum (Proc. Eurographics), 32(2), pp. 327–334, 2013 | full text (PDF)

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2012

2011

A Geo-Business Classification For London

This paper discusses the methodology and processes required to implement a geo-business classification to aid spatial decision making in the context of foreign direct investment promotion for London. This research is both timely and relevant since there is need for better decision support tools that will improve sub-regional location decision making ensuring London’s diverse business neighbourhoods are presented effectively to potential investors.

Author: Dave Chapman
Author: Patrick Weber

Publication: Transactions in GIS, Volume 15, Issue 3, pages 309–328, July 2011, Wiley, London.

Year: 2011

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Adaptive Fa[CA]de

While is often assumed that adaptation to a complex set of phenomena requires a complex control mechanism, Adaptive Fa[CA]de suggests a simpler control mechanism in terms of independent units, yet more contextual to its environment. Rather than being a constantly moving structure which would waste energy and lead to potential breakdown, the façade is trained to anticipate its own future behaviour and therefore move less to adapt. To achieve the above, the inherent structural and performative characteristics of CA are used as means to obtain optimum light levels to the interior of the building.

Author: Sean Hanna
Author: Marileena Skavara

Publication: Insert Publication Here

Year: 2011

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Capturing Time-of-Flight Data with Confidence

Time-of-Flight cameras provide high-frame-rate depth measurements within a limited range of distance. These readings can be extremely noisy and display errors not present with other scanning technologies, for instance, where scenes contain depth discontinuities or materials with low infrared reflectivity. Previous works have treated the amplitude of each Time-of-Flight sample as a measure of confidence. In this paper, we demonstrate the shortcomings of this common lone heuristic, and propose an improved per-pixel confidence measure using a Random Forest regressor trained with real-world data.

Authors: Malcolm Reynolds, Jozef Dobos, Leto Peelz, Tim Weyrich, Gabriel Brostow

Publication: Proceedings IEEE CVPR 2011 | full text (PDF)

Year: 2011

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Location Intelligence: An Innovative Approach to Business Location Decision-making

As one of the leading ‘world cities’, London is particularly reliant on sources of foreign direct investment (FDI). In the face of increasing global competition and a difficult economic climate, the capital must compete effectively to encourage and support such investors. Through a collaborative study with London's official FDI promotion agency, Think London, the need for a coherent framework for data, methodologies and tools to inform business location decision-making became apparent.

Author: Patrick Weber
Author: Dave Chapman

Publication: Transactions in GIS, Volume 15, Issue 3, pages 309–328, July 2011

Year: 2011

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2010

“Lattice Cut” - Constructing Superpixels Using Layer Constraints

Image segmentation in computer vision refers to the process of dividing an image into multi-pixel, often irregular, contiguous regions. The resulting groups of pixels are then referred to as 'superpixels'  and can be used to give a different, more salient representation of an image.

Author: Alastair P. Moore
Author: Simon J. D. Prince
Author: Jonathan Warrell

Publication: IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. 2010 | full text (PDF)

Year: 2010

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A Novel Brain-Computer Interface Using A Multi-Touch Surface

We present a novel integration of a brain-computer interface (BCI) with a multi-touch surface. BCIs based on the P300 paradigm often use a visual stimulus of a flashing character to elicit an event related potential in the brain's EEG signal. Traditionally, P300-based BCI paradigms use a grid layout of visual targets, commonly an alphabet, and allow users to select targets using their thoughts.

Author: Anthony Steed
Author: James Tompkin
Author: Michael Donnerer
Author: Beste F Yuksel

Publication: CHI '10 Proceedings of the 28th international conference on Human factors in computing systems | full text (PDF)

Year: 2010

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A Redefinition of the Paradox of Choice

Giving customers what they want is an essential factor for success in business, but knowing what they want is not an easy problem to solve.  Customers do not always want the same thing; they may not even have a clear idea of what they want.  With current business to customer (B2C) mass customization tools and technology, high levels of customization are possible, however, as psychologist Barry Schwartz has pointed out, too much choice can be overwhelming.  Schwartz calls this phenomenon the paradox of choice.

Author: Michal Piasecki
Author: Sean Hanna

Publication: Design Computing Cognition Conference Proceedings 2010

Year: 2010

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Beyond Simulation: Designing For Uncertainty And Robust Solutions

Simulation is an increasingly essential tool in the design of our environment, but any model is only as good as the initial assumptions on which it is built. This paper aims to outline some of the limits and potential dangers of reliance on simulation, and suggests how to make our models, and our buildings, more robust with respect to the uncertainty we face in design. It argues that the single analyses provided by most simulations display too precise and too narrow a result to be maximally useful in design, and instead a broader description is required, as might be provided by many differing simulations. Increased computing power now allows this in many areas.

Author: Sean Hanna
Author: Lars Hesselgren
Author:Victor Gonzalez
Author:Ignacio Vargas

Publication: Proceedings: Symposium on Simulation for Architecture and Urban Design at the 2010 Spring Simulation Multiconference

Year: 2010

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Design Agents And The Need For High-Dimensional Perception

Designed artefacts may be quantified by any number of measures. This paper aims to show that in doing so, the particular measures used may matter very little, but as many as possible should be taken. A set of building plans is used to demonstrate that arbitrary measures of their shape serve to classify them into neighbourhood types, and the accuracy of classification increases as more are used, even if the dimensionality of the space in which classification occurs is held constant.

Author: Sean Hanna

Publication: Design Computing and Cognition '10. (pp. 115 - 134). Springer: London, UK | full text (PDF)

Year: 2010

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Modelling Spatial Morphogenesis in Cities: The Dynamics of Spatial Change in Manhattan

Applied studies in the area of urban growth have often focused on the apparent physical silhouette of urban form in modelling and simulating city growth. This paper is intended to go beyond such limitations and present a model based on observed dynamics of change in urban structures. Thus the paper translates the spatial laws which govern the process of urban morphogenesis in cities into mathematical rules which represent the change in the configurational structure of street networks. For this purpose, a set of analyses will be made for the sequential development of urban street network in Manhattan.

Author: Kinda Al Sayed
Author: Alasdair Turner
Author: Sean Hanna

Publication:Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning | full text (PDF)

Year:2010

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Ontology-Based Queries Over Cancer Data

The ever-increasing amount of data in biomedical research, and in cancer research in particular, needs to be managed to support efficient data access, exchange and integration. Existing software infrastructures, such caGrid, support access to distributed information annotated with a domain ontology. However, caGrid's current querying functionality depends on the structure of individual data resources without exploiting the semantic annotations.

Author:Alejandra González Beltrán
Author: Ben Tagger
Author: Anthony Finkelstein

Publication:Proceedings of Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences | full text (PDF)

Year:2010

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Passive Autonomic Computing With 'Heat-Motors' And Their Compounds

The heat-motor is a simple device that converts thermal-to-mechanical energy, individual heat-motors may be considered as inputs to a ‘class of machine’ that can perform simple Boolean logic operands.

Author: Christopher Leung

Publication: PhD symposium at CITA Copenhagen Denmark | full text (scribd)

Year: 2010

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Pedestrian Route Choice Simulation Using Mixed Methods

Determination of optimal paths in complex buildings is an open research question. Estimating more realistic route choices for the purpose of simulation would be desirable from a number of perspectives. These perspectives include the optimization of building design for ease of wayfinding; accurate prediction of crowding in emergency evacuation scenarios and accurate prediction of movement patterns in scenarios of normal use.

Author: Erica Calogero
Author: Christoph Stahl

Publication: Environmental Modeling: A workshop held as part of Spatial Cognition | full text (PDF)

Year: 2010

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Preliminary Investigation of Web GIS Trust: The Example of the “WIYBY” Website

Public access to environmental information is now a common requirement by national, international and European Union legislation. It is widely recognized that web-based GIS can enhance access to environmental information and can support public participation in environmental decision-making. Yet when these systems are used by non-experts might be challenging because of the GIS complexity. Considerations about data accuracy and errors during the analysis further increase the elements of risk, complexity and uncertainty, which are preconditions of trust. Many lay users are partially aware of the technicalities related to spatial data handling.

Author: Tao Cheng
Author: Muki Haklay
Author: Artemis Skarlatidou

Publication: Proceedings of Joint International Conference on Theory, Data Handling and Modelling in GeoSpatial Information Science, Hong Kong. | full text (PDF)

Year: 2010

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Processing And Structure: Teaching And Learning From Direct Fabrication

File to factory processes, direct fabrication and the technologies that drive them are often described by a number of perceived outcomes.

  • First, they seem to be flexible throughout the process of design. By controlling designs parametrically, many design decisions can be deferred to a later point in the process, adjusted by altering parameters at any time.
  • Second, they appear to provide a unique ability to create non-standard architecture. Individual elements may be entirely unique, and change in every instance of their application.
  • Finally, the resulting products of construction are highly complex, and this results both in an unprecedented ability to adapt to functional requirements and to a new aesthetic in its own right.

Author: Sean Hanna

Publication: Proceedings of International Symposium File to Factory 2010

Year: 2010

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Simulation and the Search for Stability in Design

Design problems, if they can be called problems at all, are complex. Disciplines such as architecture and planning are described as dealing almost exclusively with situa-tions in which the brief is relatively ill -defined relative to the real range of problem considerations, the perception of the problem itself may change radically as design progresses, and the solution is typically arrived at by a unique process that cannot be predicted in advance.

Author: Sean Hanna

Publication: Design Computing and Cognition '10 Workshop on Assessing the Impact of Complexity Science in Design: Alexiou K and Zamenopoulos T (eds.) | full text (PDF)

Year: 2010

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2009

Cities as Emergent Models: The Morphological Logic of Manhattan and Barcelona

Over the years the world has been characterized by a rapidly growth in urbanization. As a consequence, cities all over the world continue to grow at an unparalleled rate to be able to absorb the increasing in urbanization.

Author: Kinda Al Sayed
Author: Alasdair Turner
Author: Sean Hanna

Publication: Proceedings of the 7th International Space Syntax Symposium. (pp. p. 1). Royal Institute of Technology (KTH): Stockholm, Sweden | full text (PDF)

Year: 2009

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DIY Design Process for Interactive Surfaces

Interactive tables come in many shapes and forms and are created for different interaction styles and concepts. Many examples of interactive tables exist and recently, commercially available interactive tabletops have been introduced to the consumer, such as the Microsoft Surface, Philips Entertaible and NUI. However, discussion about how these tables were designed has not been adequately disseminated. In fact, little has been reported in the literature about the different design decisions and trade-offs that are made when constructing interactive tables despite the fact that such decisions can have a profound impact on a successful outcome.

Author: George Roussos
Author: Abel Maciel
Author: James Tompkin
Author: Jennifer G. Sheridan

Publication: Proceedings of 23rd Conference on Human Computer Interaction, pages 485-493, Cambridge, UK, 2009 | full text (PDF)

Year: 2009

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Epitomized Priors for Multi-labeling Problems

Image parsing remains difficult due to the need to combine local and contextual information when labeling a scene. We approach this problem by using the epitome as a prior over label configurations. Several properties make it suited to this task. First, it allows a condensed patch-based representation. Second, efficient E-M based learning and inference algorithms can be used. Third, non-stationarity is easily incorporated. We consider three existing priors, and show how each can be extended using the epitome.

Author: Jonathan Warrell
Author: Simon J.D. Prince
Author: Alastair P. Moore

Publication: CVPR 2009 Proceedings | full text (PDF)

Year: 2009

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Fanning And Bending Sub-Voxel Structures In Diffusion MRI

We present a new model for fanning and bending white matter structures on a sub-voxel scale. We devise a parametric model of how the fibre orientation varies spatially over each sub-voxel in the voxel grid for both types of configuration. Fitting the model provides quantitative information about the degree of fanning or bending in each voxel. We demonstrate using data from a standard human brain diffusion MRI acquisition.

Author: Shahrum Nedjati-Gilani
Author: Daniel C. Alexander

Publication: International Society For Magnetic Resonance In Medicine (ISMRM) | full text (PDF)

Publication URL: http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/miccai/dmfc/orals/paper27.pdf

Year: 2009

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Investing in Geography: A GIS To Support Inward Investment

For the last 11 years Think London has acted as London’s official inward investment agency. In this time it has helped over 800 foreign companies set up operations in London, thus making an important contribution to London’s position as a major foreign direct investment target.

Author: Patrick Weber
Author: Dace Chapman

Publication: Computers, Environment and Urban Systems Volume 33, Issue 1, January 2009, Pages 1-14

Year: 2009

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Quasi-Projection: Aperiodic Concrete Formwork For Perceived Surface Complexity

Aperiodic tiling patterns result in endlessly varied local configurations of a limited set of basic polygons, and as such may be used to economically produce non-repeating, complex forms from a minimal set of modular elements. Several well-known tilings, such as by Penrose (2D) and Danzer (3D) have been used in architecture, but these are only two examples of an infinite set of possible tilings that can be generated by the projection in two or three dimensions of high dimensional grids subject to rotations.

Author: Sean Hanna
Author: Olivier Ottevaere

Publication: The 2009 international conference of the Association of Computer Aided Design In Architecture (ACADIA09): reForm() | full text (PDF)

Year: 2009

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Review of B2C Online Product Configurators

While business to customer (B2C) mass customization has been discussed mainly from the producers’ perspective, researchers have reported a lack of sufficient literature examining the topic from customers’ perspective. This paper provides a review of configurators with user experience in mind. We first discuss terms such as: personalization, customization, optimization, design and innovation. We then use these terms to discuss definitions of configurators’ features such as: solution space, type of customers’ input, linearity, product visualization method and types of recommendations.

Author: Michal Piasecki
Author: Sean Hanna

Publication: World Conference on Mass Customization & Personalization 2009

Year: 2009

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Scene Shape Priors for Superpixel Segmentation

Unsupervised over-segmentation of an image into superpixels is a common preprocessing step for image parsing algorithms. Superpixels are used as both regions of support for feature vectors and as a starting point for the final segmentation. In this paper we investigate incorporating a priori information into superpixel segmentations. We learn a probabilistic model that describes the spatial density of the object boundaries in the image.

Author: Alistair P. Moore
Author: Simon J.D. Prince
Author: Jonathan Warrell
Author: Umar Mohammed
Author: Graham Jones

Publication: Computer Vision, IEEE 12th International Conference 2009 | full text (PDF)

Year: 2009

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Spectral Comparison Of Large Urban Graphs

The spectrum of an axial graph is proposed as a means for comparison between spaces, particularly for measuring between very large and complex graphs. A number of methods have been used in recent years for comparative analysis within large sets of urban areas, both to investigate properties of specific known types of street network or to propose a taxonomy of urban morphology based on an analytical technique.

Author: Sean Hanna

Publication: Proceedings of the 7th International Space Syntax Symposium. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH): Stockholm, Sweden | full text (PDF)

Year: 2009

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Vistas: Hierarchical Boundary Priors Using Multiscale Conditional Random Fields

Boundary detection is a fundamental problem in computer vision. However, boundary detection is difficult as it involves integrating multiple cues (intensity, color, texture) as well as trying to incorporate object class or scene level descriptions to mitigate the ambiguity of the local signal. In this paper we investigate incorporating a priori information into boundary detection. We learn a probabilistic model that describes a prior for object boundaries over small patches of the image.We then incorporate this boundary model into a mixture of multiscale conditional random fields, where the mixture components represent different contexts formed by clustering overall spatial distributions of boundaries across images and image regions (vistas).

Author: Jonathan Warrell
Author: Alistair P. Moore
Author: Simon J.D. Prince

Publication: Proceedings of British Machine Vision Conference 2009 | full text (PDF)

Year: 2009

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2008

Estimating Building Exposure And Impact To Volcanic Hazards

Principal and subsidiary building structure characteristics and their distribution have been inventoried in Icod, Tenerife (Canary Islands) and used to evaluate the vulnerability of individual buildings to three volcanic hazards: tephra fallout, volcanogenic earthquakes and pyroclastic flows. The procedures described in this paper represent a methodological framework for a comprehensive survey of all the buildings at risk in the area around the Teide volcano in Tenerife.

Author: Joan Marti
Author: Robin Spence
Author: Erica Calogero
Author: A. Ordoñez
Author: A. Felpeto
Author: Peter Baxter

Publication: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 178(3).

Year: 2008

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Genr8: Architects’ Experience with an Emergent Design Tool

The human eye is intuitively drawn to the organic shapes of sand dunes, curling vines, rolling hills and other natural phenomena. Because of its strong aesthetic appeal, our particular interest is in generating biologically inspired form for architects. In the past, architectural form was constrained by material and structure and was able to re ect only a small degree of natural form in examples such as rounded pillars and domed roofs. In an exciting paradigm shift in architecture, contemporary computer aided design and manufacturing in interaction with integrated, human designed materials have largely unleashed today's architects from these shackles. They can now move beyond simply appreciating the graceful form of an emerging ower that bends in response to the sun's position or admiring the evolved shape of a natural shelter that responds to seasonal elements.

Author: Martin Hemberg
Author: Una-May O’Reilly
Author: Achim Menges
Author: Katrin Jonas
Author: Michel da Costa Gonçalves
Author: Steven R. Fuchs

Publication:Juan Romero and Penousal Machado (eds) The Art of Artificial Evolution: A Handbook on Evolutionary Art and Music, Springer - Natural Computing | full text (PDF)

Year: 2008

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OpenStreetMap: User-Generated Street Maps

Technological changes over the past 10 years, in combination with increased bandwidth and the ability to provide better tools for collaboration, have led to “crowdsourcing”—a term developed from the concept of outsourcing in which business operations are transferred to remote, many times cheaper locations. Similarly, crowdsourcing is how large groups of users can perform functions that are either difficult to automate or expensive to implement.

Author: Patrick Weber
Author: Mordechai Muki Haklay

Publication: IEEE Pervasive Computing, October-December 2008, Pages 12-18, ISSN: 1536-1268 | full text (PDF)

Year: 2008

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Regularized Super-Resolution for Diffusion MRI

Diffusion MRI provides an insight into the microstructural architecture of tissue by observing the restricted and hindered displacement of water molecules undergoing Brownian motion in vivo. By looking at the probability density function p of displacements over a fixed period of time t, inferences can be made about the tissue microstructure.

Author: Geoff J. M. Parker
Author: Daniel C. Alexander
Author: Shahrum Nedjati-Gilani

Publication: IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: From Nano to Macro (ISBI) ( pp.875-878). | full text (PDF)

Year: 2008

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Representational Framework for Pedestrian Movement Simulation in a School Environment

This paper presents some techniques developed in order to explore the relationship between school design and pupil movement outside of formal teaching activity. In this context, the paper presents the development of techniques suitable for use in this application. The process has to be appropriate to school design and to have as its aim the accurate prediction of crowding in the proposed design.

Author: Erica Calogero

Publication: Movement and Orientation in Built Environments: Evaluating Design Rationale and User Cognition, Veracruz, Mexico | full text (PDF)

Year: 2008

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The Mechanical Homunculus

This paper has been written in order to clarify the way that some potentially very useful physical devices can be thought about in the context of a wider system. These devices mechanically change state as their operating environment changes and can be directly used to act on that environment or another physically adjacent environment. The devices are autonomous and require no power. They are usually regarded as being so basic that they are not worth thinking about in a sophisticated 21st Century context.

Author: Stephen A. Gage
Author: Chris Leung

Publication: 'Cybernetics and Systems 2008', Austrian Society for Cybernetic Studies and Austrian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence (OFAI), Austrian Society for Cybernetic Studies | full text (PDF)

Year: 2008

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Topological Self-Organisation: Using A Particle-Spring System Simulation To Generate Structural Space-Filling Lattices

The problem being addressed relates to the filling of a certain volume with a structural space frame network lattice consisting of a given number of nodes. A method is proposed that comprises a generative algorithm including a physical dynamic simulation of particle-spring system. The algorithm is able to arrange nodes in space and establish connections among them through local rules of self-organisation, thus producing space frame topologies.

Author: Sean Hanna
Author: A Kanellos

Publication: Proceedings of the 26th eCAADe Education and Research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe 2008

Year: 2008

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Urban Identity Through Quantifiable Spatial Attributes

“A city is a network of paths, which are topologically deformable”. The city is viewed as a system whose identity constantly emerges from the rearrangement of interrelations between its elements. Focusing on the urban neighbourhood as a set of building blocks, this view on urban identity is tested through the automated identification of the structure of relations between discrete blocks of labelled neighbourhoods.

Author: Anna Laskari
Author: Sean Hanna
Author: Christian Derix

Publication:Design Computing and Cognition '08: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition. (pp. pp. 615-634). Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, The Netherlands. | full text (PDF)

Year:2008

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2007

A Parametric Representation Of Ruled Surfaces

This paper proposes a simple parametric system to generate an almost complete set of ruled surfaces that may be used to describe building geometry. The major classes of regular, named ruled surfaces can be generated from a limited set of curves. Each of these is shown to be reducible to a transformation of a single standard curve, a helix, and therefore represented by a limited set of six parameters.

Author: Elena Prosalidou
Author: Sean Hanna

Publication: Proceedings of CAAD Futures 2007 | full text (PDF)

Year: 2007

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Can Virtual Environments Help To Promote Engagement In Therapy Activities?

In the field of post-stroke rehabilitation, there appears to be growing interest in the use of virtual reality (VR)-based systems as adjunct technologies to standard therapeutic practices. The limitations and the potentials of this technology are not, however, generally well understood.

Author: Jamie O'Brien

Publication: IEEE Virtual Rehabilitation 2007 | full text (PDF)

Year: 2007

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Colour Transfer By Feature Based Histogram Registration

A common problem in computer vision is that different sensors acquire different colour responses to an imaged object. This problem occurs because physical factors during the imaging process introduce a variation that differs for each sensor; in addition, it is practically impossible to image an object under perfectly constant lighting conditions at different spatial positions within an imaging environment. This variation degrades the performance of colour computer vision processes such as object tracking; in addition, the involved nature of calibration routines means that the calibration step is often ignored.

Author: Chris R. Senanayake
Author: Daniel C. Alexander

Publication: Proceedings of the British Machine Vision Conference 2007. Malvern, UK: British Machine Vision Association | full text (PDF)

Year: 2007

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Defining Implicit Objective Functions for Design Problems

The ability of evolutionary algorithms and related search techniques to explore a varied space of solutions with efficiency and often surprising innovation makes them useful tools for design. This typically requires the explicit definition of a goal or objective function and so has been ideally suited to engineering optimisation tasks. For many design problems however, and particularly for those of great complexity, it is difficult to specify such a goal in advance. Design and creativity themselves, particularly in a social context, are often seen as processes of guided, but open exploration. Steels has shown that effective languages can be generated without an external measure of quality by allowing robots to speak and evaluate each other in an environment. Such approaches have been incorporated into genetic algorithms by allowing the objective to change over time.

Author: Sean Hanna

Publication:Proceedings of GECCO '07: Genetic And Evolutionary Computation Conference | full text (PDF)

Year: 2007

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Emergent Form from Structural Optimisation of the Voronoi Polyhedra

In the course of the exploration of computational means in the architectural design process, in order to investigate more complex, adaptive geometries, the Voronoi diagram has recently gained some attention, being a three-dimensional space-filling structure which is modular but not repetitive. The project looks at the Voronoi diagram as a load-bearing structure, and whether it can be useful for structural optimisation.

Author: Eva Friedrich
Author: Christian Derix
Author:Sean Hanna

Publication: Proceedings Generative Art 10th International Conference, Milan Polytechnic, Milan | full text (PDF)

Year: 2007

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In-between Theory and Practice: Dialogues in Design Research

Research into the process of designing new technologies has undergone considerable changes over the past twenty years. Various trends in the field of Human and Computer Interaction have challenged the traditional engineering-style, top-down approach and  the associated cognitive methodology that regards individuals as making rational decisions and plans according to an abstract model of the world.

Author: Arianna Bassoli
Author: Johanna Brewer
Author: Karen Martin

Publication: ACM Conf Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI 2007 | full text (PDF)

Year: 2007

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Inductive Machine Learning Of Optimal Modular Structures

Structural optimization is usually handled by iterative methods requiring repeated samples of a physics-based model, but this process can be computationally demanding. Given a set of previously optimized structures of the same topology, this paper uses inductive learning to replace this optimization process entirely by deriving a function that directly maps any given load to an optimal geometry. A support vector machine is trained to determine the optimal geometry of individual modules of a space frame structure given a specified load condition.

Author: Sean Hanna

Publication: Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing archive Volume 21 Issue 4, October 2007 | full text (PDF)

Year: 2007

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2006

'London Calling' - A Spatial Decision Support System For Inward Investors

This paper summarises the development of a framework of geographic factors which are used to inform the development of a Spatial Decision Support System for the promotion of Inward Investment. First, a literature review identified potentially relevant theories of factors influencing regional development and competitiveness. Drawing from this review, we developed a geospatial framework which incorporates data requirements that were gathered from a user requirements study carried out with Think London, London’s inward investment agency.

Author: Marc Hardwick
Author: Dave Chapman
Author: Patrick Weber

Publication: Suarez, J and Markus, B, (eds.) 9th AGILE conference on Geographic Infomation Science - conference proceedings. (pp. 239 - 246). College of Geoinformatics, University of West Hungary: Szekesfehervar, Hungary. | full text (PDF)

Year: 2006

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Community-Based Public Authoring With Mobile Chemical Sensor Networks

After the industrial revolution, the humanity faced a great period of urbanization and development of industry. At that time, several natural environments were degraded and nothing was done to minimize and mitigate the impacts. Nowadays, scientists have proven two facts to be true: those environmental issues are harmful to life, and the mankind is the main responsible for them. Consequently, that lead us to two questions: How to raise awareness of environmental issues, and how to motivate the community to reduce them?

Author:Giles Lane
Author: Natalie Jerimijenko
Author: Camilla Brueton
Author: Dimi Diall
Author: Demetrios Airantzis
Author: George Papamarkos
Author: George Roussos
Author: Karen Martin

Publication: IET Intelligent Environments | full text (PDF)

Year: 2006

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Engaging with a Situated Display via Picture Messaging

Physical spaces are made meaningful to us in a number of ways - by their form and materials, by the activities that take place in them and through social interaction with co-occupants of the space. Increasingly, we are now encountering hybrid electronic and physical spaces where computing capabilities are embedded into the environment or are mobile, personal and networked– environments known as ubiquitous computing. How do we create meaning for these hybrid spaces?

Author: Karen Martin
Author: Alan Penn
Author: Lesley Gavin

Publication: ACM Conference Human Factors in Computing Systems | full text (PDF)

Year: 2006

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Estimating a Finite Element Optimisation Using Support Vector Machines

Structural optimisation in this case refers to the branch of engineering in which a physical structure is optimised with respect to certain performance criteria. Finite element methods are one technique to facilitate structural optimisation whilst also allowing visualisations and acting, generally, as a good design tool.

Author: Sean Hanna
Author: Siavash Haroun Mahdavi

Publication: Gero, JS (ed) Design Computing and Cognition '06. Springer. pp 563-582 | (full text) PDF

Year: 2006

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Mapping The Number of Fibre Orientations per Voxel in Diffusion MRI

We have suggested a method for mapping the number of fibre orientations in each voxel of a 3D diffusion MRI acquisition. This information can be used for selecting the most appropriate algorithm for finding the orientations of fibres in each voxel. We present a computationally expensive and accurate model generation and selection algorithm. The approach described does have some limitations, as it does not allow for oblate fibre orientation distributions, which could be expected in various brain regions in the presence of fanning (e.g. corona radiata) and of high curvature (e.g. optic radiation).

Author: Chris R. Senanayake
Author: Daniel C. Alexander
Author: G.J. Parker

Publication: ISMRM 14th Scientific Meeting and Exhibition | full text (PDF)

Year: 2006

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Representing Style by Feature Space Archetypes: Description and Emulation of Spatial Styles in an Architectural Context

Style is a broad term that could potentially refer to any features of a work, as well as a fluid concept that is subject to change and disagreement. The idea of a style in any discipline is a fluid concept that is always subject to change, and therefore suited to a flexible representation. What is suggested here is that it can nevertheless be accurately represented and emulated. This work has presented an algorithmic method for both deriving a stylistic definition automatically from examples, and using it to generate new designs. Architectural examples were used, and were investigated primarily in terms of their spatial features, but it is intended as a general model in that other forms of input and classification algorithms may be used. Likewise, axial analysis and the aggregation model are not essential to the method, but the principles of feature space reduction and archetype should apply to a variety of analysis and synthesis techniques.

Author: Sean Hanna

Publication: Design Computing and Cognition '06. Springer. pp. 3-22 | full text (PDF)

Year: 2006

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Responsive Material, Responsive Structure

Visionary designers and fiction writers speculate today about a future environment of nanotechnology and 'smart dust', able to create its form in response to external factors, or with an apparent will of its own. Although the manipulation of individual molecules on such a scale is still firmly in the realm of science fiction, this talk presents current research that makes this a reality at the millimetre, rather than the nanometre scale.

Author: Sean Hanna

Publication: Beesley P, Hirosue S, Ruxton J, Turner C and Trankle M (eds) Responsive Architectures: Subtle Technologies 2006, Riverside Architectural Press. ISBN: 0-9780978-0-7

Year: 2006

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Undersound: Music And Mobility Under the City

For researchers in ubiquitous computing there is a growing concern in understanding how innovative technologies might reflect and enhance current social practices of mobility and the personal and collective relationships we begin to build with and within the spaces we move through every day. In this paper we present a design sketch for an example of such a technology. Currently a work-in-progress in its conceptual stage, undersound is an application drawing on prior research, to support music sharing and distribution within the London Underground.

Author: Arianna Bassoli
Author: Johanna Brewer
Author: Karen Martin

Publication: Poster at the 8th International Conference of Ubiquitous Computing | full text (PDF)

Year: 2006

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2005

Assessing The Geographic Dimensions Of London’s Innovative Networks

A wide range of authors have highlighted the potential benefits for innovation that may arise from effective networking between organisations along and across the supply-chain. As many organisations have downsized or out-sourced basic research activities Universities have an increasingly important role within such networks.

Author: Patrick Weber
Author: Elena Besussi
Author: Dave Chapman

Publication: Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis (UCL), UCL (University College London) | full text (PDF)

Year: 2005

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Kielder Probes - Bespoke Tools For An Indeterminate Design Process

Recent developments in innovative technologies and smart materials have created new opportunities and are suggesting significant changes in the way we design and build architecture. Traditionally, however, there has always been a gap between the new technologies and their applications into other areas.

Author: Robert Sheil
Author: Kelvin C. Leung

Publication: Ataman, O, (ed.) Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture. (pp. 254 - 259). ACADIA: Savannah College of Art and Design

Year: 2005

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Modelling Expected Physical Impacts And Human Casualties From Explosive Volcanic Eruptions

A multi-hazard, multi-vulnerability impact model has been developed for application to European volcanoes that could significantly damage human settlements. This impact model is based on volcanological analyses of the potential hazards and hazard intensities coupled with engineering analyses of the vulnerability to these hazards of residential buildings in four European locations threatened by explosive volcanic eruptions.

Author: Jean Christopher Komorowski
Author: P. John Baxter
Author: G. Toyos
Author: Erica Calogero
Author: Ilan Kelman
Author: Robin J. S. Spence

Publication: Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Volume 5, Issue 6, 2005, pp.1003-1015

Year: 2005

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Where Creativity Comes From: The Social Spaces Of Embodied Minds

This paper explores creative design, social interaction and perception. It proposes that creativity at a social level is not a result of many individuals trying to be creative at a personal level, but occurs naturally in the social interaction between comparatively simple minds embodied in a complex world. Particle swarm algorithms can model group interaction in shared spaces, but design space is not necessarily one pre-defined space of set parameters on which everyone can agree, as individual minds are very different. A computational model is proposed that allows a similar swarm to occur between spaces of different description and even dimensionality.

Author: Sean Hanna

Publication: Gero JS and Maher ML (eds) Computational and Cognitive Models of Creative Design VI. | full text (PDF)

Year: 2005

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2004

Investigating The Use Of Stereolithography To Build Adaptive Robots

In nature, species have evolved to best suit their niches. Monkeys have evolved to have long arms and dextrous hands that enable them to climb trees and pick fruit. Lions, on the other hand, have evolved to be strong and fast so as to most effectively catch prey in the open savannah. Each species has therefore evolved in order to best cope with typical tasks that are encountered. This can be thought of as optimising to a narrow range of tasks. Human beings have the ability to live almost anywhere. Even early man was found in nearly all climates and surroundings. He is not the strongest, nor fastest, and he is not especially good at climbing trees either. What he has is the ability to think. Moreover, the ability to use tools to transform his body into what is needed for the environment. Weapons for hunting allow him to exceed the lion’s power, and clothing can keep him warm in otherwise inhospitable climates. Therefore he has a very wide range of skills, though none are of great magnitude.

Author: Sean Hanna
Author: Mahdavi S Haroun

Publication: Proceedings of ICARCV 2004 | full text (PDF)

Year: 2004

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Modularity and Flexibility At The Small Scale: Evolving Continuous Material Variation with Stereolithography

In this paper, we introduce a technique by which the internal material properties of an object can be optimised at a microstructural level (5x10-5m) to counteract the forces that are applied to it. These can then be fabricated using the rapid prototyping method of stereolithography. The proposed technique is analogous to principles of mass customization and takes advantage of a flexible module to create complex structures in a manner that is computationally efficient and effective.

Author: Sean Hanna
Author: Mahdavi S. Haroun
Author:Mahdavi S. Haroun

Publication: Proceedings of the 23rd annual conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community | full text (PDF)

Year: 2004

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Optimising Continuous Microstructures: A Comparison Of Gradient-Based and Stochastic Methods

Optimisation techniques are used by engineers to design structures to satisfy many criteria, such as high strength or low weight. Recent advances in computer controlled manufacturing technology have also allowed the construction of such structures to be automated, so that the machine plays a significant role in both design and building processes. The work in this paper investigates optimisation of a microstructure suited to a rapid prototyping technology known as stereo lithography that is capable of construction at a high resolution, currently around 0.05mm. Our technique is based on the seamless repetition of a tiny structural module over a large volume such that the overall object behaves as a continuous material. It is, in effect, operating at a scale between traditional large-scale manufacturing and nanotechnology.

Author: Sean Hanna
Author: Madhavi S. Haroun

Publication: Proceedings of SCIS & ISIS 2004. The Joint 2nd International Conference on Soft Computing and Intelligent Systems and 5th International Symposium on Advanced Intelligent Systems | full text (PDF)

Year: 2004

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Surveying Residential Building Stock Vulnerability To Volcanic Hazards

The EU-funded EXPLORIS project (Explosive Eruption Risk and Decision Support for EU Populations Threatened by Volcanoes) focuses on three main areas of enquiry: 1. The quantification of risk in association with various eruption scenarios; 2. the assessment of the impact of such events on the communities living in these high risk areas; and 3. the mitigation of such disaster scenarios. This paper presents work done in the second category, impact assessment, to develop and produce an inventory of the residential building stock in vulnerable areas.

Authors: Erica Calogero
Publication: Proceedings of the UCL Johnston-Lavis Conference, Mitigating Volcanic Crises: Practical Solutions for the 21st Century, London poster
Year: 2004

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2003

An Evolutionary Approach To Microstructure Optimisation Of Stereolithographic Models

The aim of this work is to utilize an evolutionary algorithm to evolve the microstructure of an object created by a stereolithography machine. This should be optimised to be able to withstand loads applied to it while at the same time minimizing its overall weight.

Authors: Mahdavi S Haroun and Sean. Hanna
Publication: Proceedings of CEC2003, the Congress on Evolutionary Computation Year: 2003

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2002